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LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES: Endless Uses [Chemical Engineering Progress]
[November 11, 2013]

LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES: Endless Uses [Chemical Engineering Progress]

(Chemical Engineering Progress Via Acquire Media NewsEdge) Lithium-ion batteries can be tailored to suit a range of products in almost any industry. This article describes the main applications for which these batteries are used, and explores some of the challenges hindering future advances.

Batteries have often been derided since their invention over two centuries ago. Thomas Edison stated in 1883, "The storage battery is, in my opinion, a catchpenny, a sensation, a mechanism for swindling the public by stock companies. The storage battery is one of those peculiar things which appeals to the imagination, and no more perfect thing could be desired by stock swindlers than that very selfsame thing.... Just as soon as a man gets working on the secondary battery it brings out his latent capacity for lying. ... Scientifically, storage is all right, but, commercially, as absolute a failure as one can imagine." Those are harsh words, considering that in 2012 the battery industry reached $100 billion in sales worldwide, of which $12 billion was in lithium-ion batteries.

There are several reasons why batteries are maligned by the general consumer - one of which is a misunderstanding about what creates energy in a battery. The term itself, battery, is a very generic term that refers to a group of cells that convert chemical energy into electrical energy to produce a direct current. But, where does this chemical energy come from? Any pairing of an oxidant and reductant can create chemical energy, which can be harnessed in a battery under the right circumstances. The aqueous battery market includes chemical pairings such as zinc/manganese oxide, nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride, nickel/iron, lead/lead oxide, zinc/air, zinc/mercuric oxide, and zinc/silver oxide, among others. The nonaqueous lithium-ion battery market commonly pairs graphite or carbon as the negative electrode with a variety of lithiated transition metal oxides as the positive electrode. Each pairing represents a chemical reaction with unique conditions and properties that must be respected to achieve the desired performance.

While aqueous batteries can be primary (Le., single-use) or secondary (Le., rechargeable) depending on the chemical pairing and design, essentially all lithium-ion batteries are designed to be rechargeable. Lithium-metal batteries, which contain lithium metal or a lithium metal alloy as the negative electrode, are usually primary batteries.

Another common complaint regarding batteries is the problem of short lifespan. Textbooks typically show the electrochemical reaction within a battery as a simple balanced reaction - which is usually far from the actual condition within a commercial battery. It is better to think of battery chemistry as a corrosion reaction, and in the case of rechargeable batteries, a corrosion reaction that must run forward and backward hundreds to thousands of times. Small defects and impurities (at the ppm level) can drastically shorten the calendar life of any rechargeable battery, including lithium-ion batteries. Side reactions are always a concern in rechargeable batteries, as they lead to inefficiencies in capacity and energy, in addition to self-discharge. However, many of these side reactions are necessary evils within the battery system, and they are often required to form a passivation layer on the electrodes to prevent breakdown of the electrolyte. Operating a battery outside of its normal operating temperature range or voltage window, or exceeding its power rating, can have a significant effect on these side reactions and thus impact cycle, calendar, and shelf life.

The most important point that battery consumers need to remember is that battery chemistries and designs are tailored to their intended applications. This is just as true for lithiumion batteries as it is for aqueous batteries. Some batteries are designed for high energy, some for high power, some for long life (cycle, calendar, or shelf), some for enhanced safety, and some for low cost. No battery system does it all in one package, and any salesperson who promises it all has tapped into his or her "latent capacity for lying." This article showcases some of the common applications and issues of today's commercially available lithium-ion batteries.

Tailored to the application Several choices are available for the cathode and anode in a Li-ion battery, and they are selected based on the desired performance.

Cathode selection. Spinels (e.g., LiMn2 O4) and olivines (e.g., LiFeP04) have flat voltage profiles and experience relatively small volume changes during delithiation, but typically have lower energy densities. These cathodes are preferred for applications demanding high power and are generally considered the safest of cathode choices. LiCoO2 (LCO), is a common cathode used in portable electronics, as it provides a good balance between energy density and stability, but its use is often limited by the cost of cobalt. Nickel can be added to the layered LCO structure to reduce the cobalt content and enhance the energy density - these cathodes fall into two general classes: NCA(e.g., LiNi0.8 Co0.15 Al0.05 O2) and NMC (e.g., LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 02).

There are no rules to follow in choosing a cathode material for a specific application. As with everything else, it comes down to cost and the physical limitations (volume, weight, temperature, etc.) of the application. Money saved on lower-cost cathodes may be spent on higher-cost battery management systems (BMS) and enhanced safety designs. Since lithium-ion batteries are typically incorporated into a larger electrical product, and rarely sold directly to the consumer, the final product designer must weigh the tradeoffs of the cell's chemistry.

Anode selection. Graphite is the predominant anode material for lithium-ion systems, because it has relatively high capacity (compared to cathode materials) and operates within 100 mV of lithium metal. Hard carbon is also used, but it generally has a lower capacity than graphite and operates a few hundred mV above lithium, which lowers the energy density of the cell. Due to hard carbon's sloping voltage profile, it is often paired with cathodes that have flat voltage profiles, such as spinels and olivines. A sloping voltage profile provides a convenient state-of-charge (SOC) indicator.

Silicon anodes have attracted attention due to their theoretical capacity of4,200 mAh/g for fully lithiated silicon, which is more than ten times that of graphite's 360 mAh/g. However, silicon particles swell 400% when fully lithiated, which causes particle fracturing that drastically shortens anode life. For this reason, silicon is usually blended with graphite and the degree of lithiation is limited.

The closer an electrode operates to the potential where lithium metal forms deposits, the more reactive the material becomes. The anode considered the safest is lithium titanate spinel (Li4 Ti5 O12, or LTO), which has an open circuit potential of 1.55 V vs. lithium. Unlike other anode systems, LTO does not expand or contract during cycling. However, the reduced energy density of LTO-based cells limits their use to applications demanding the highest level of safety and/or long life. Another benefit of LTO-based cells is their high power capability - due in part to their spinel structure, which allows lithium ions to diffuse into the crystal structure in all three dimensions.

Electrode selection. When choosing electrodes, the first step is to determine the thickness of the electrodes. High-power applications generally favor thinner electrodes (~30 pm), while high-energy applications favor thicker electrodes (~50-l 00 pm). There are tradeoffs to both types of electrode. Thin electrodes require more electrode surface area, which in turn requires more copper and aluminum current-collecting foils and more separator. Electrodes that are too thick can cause non-uniform current distributions throughout the thickness of the electrode, which underutilizes the material closest to the current-collecting foil while overstressing the material closest to the separator.

Packaging selection. Packaging may be either rigid or flexible (i.e., a can versus a pouch). Rigid containers are usually made of steel or aluminum and offer the most protection for the cell contents. They are also able to contain higher internal pressures (up to 200 psi) before venting through a rupture disc. Flexible packaging offers the convenience of easier cell assembly by simple hot-sealing methods, but it provides less protection for the cell contents and generally cannot contain internal pressure of more than 30 psi.

Some packaging represents a hybrid approach, such as several pouch cells combined in a sealed metal container. Another hybrid approach uses a pouch laminate with a much thicker aluminum barrier layer sandwiched in the middle, but thin enough that the pouch laminate is still heat-sealable - essentially a stiff pouch.

Design selection. Cell designs may be either cylindrical or prismatic (Figure I ). The most common cylindrical cell used in portable applications such as laptops and power tools is the 18650 format, which is 18 mm in diameter and 65 mm high. Prismatic designs are used where flat profiles are needed, such as in cell phones. Thermalmanagement criteria impose limits on the thickness of each design, with the diameter of cylindrical cells generally less than 6 cm and the thickness of prismatic cells generally less than 4 cm.

Applications for Li-ion batteries Lithium-ion batteries were commercialized by Sony in 1991 for audio-video equipment, laptop computers, cellphones, and other portable equipment. They have become the battery of choice for nearly every portable device on the market due to their higher voltage, higher energy density, lack of memory effect, and relatively long life.

The high voltage provided by lithium-ion batteries means that fewer cells in series are needed to achieve a desired voltage. For instance, a graphite/LiMO, battery has an average voltage of 3.6 V and can replace three NiCd or NiMH batteries, which have an average voltage of 1.2 V. This feature alone has saved considerable space in portable electronics by enabling reductions in hardware size and void space.

Lithium-ion batteries are also designed to be fabricated in a variety of electrode and cell configurations to fit a wide range of power and energy applications. Cost aside, in most applications, lithium-ion batteries have superior power and energy density over conventional aqueous rechargeable batteries.

Portable electronics The majority of lithium-ion batteries for portable applications are made in Japan, South Korea, and China, which reflects the fact that the majority of portable electronic devices are made in Asia. SignumBOX (based in Chile, the location of the largest lithium salt brines) publishes an annual analysis of the lithium market that reports the end uses of lithium by application (I). In 2012, it estimated that 33% of lithium production was used in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, while only 2% was used in primary lithium-metal batteries (most of the remaining lithium was used for frits, glass, grease, etc.). Table 1 provides a further breakdown of the end-use estimates for lithium-ion batteries in 2012. Laptop manufacturing consumes the largest amount of lithium, while mobile phones and smartphones consume the most lithium-ion batteries. China reportedly made more than 4.5 billion lithium-ion batteries in 2011 alone.

Moore's Law is the observation that the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles approximately every 18 months to two years. The result of this miniaturization bonanza has enabled the computing power that once required a large room to now fit nicely in a pocket. These technological wonders demand ever more energy, and today the largest component in any portable computing device is the lithium-ion battery.

Moore's Law does not apply to batteries due to the nature of the charge carrier. Electronics utilize electrons, whereas batteries utilize ions, and the volume of a lithium ion is 1013 times larger than that of an electron. The semiconductor industry has now miniaturized the electron's conductive path to a width of mere atoms (which implies that Moore's Law may soon no longer apply to electronic circuits). However, ions flow through bulky electrolyte channels that are already essentially at their minimum width.

Incremental improvements in the energy density of lithium-ion batteries will continue, but it is unlikely that an order of magnitude increase will ever be possible. Even a doubling of the energy density is highly ambitious. Hence, researchers are now discussing what the next battery technology beyond lithium-ion may be.

Transportation Thomas Edison did not lose complete faith in batteries. A decade after he made his critical comments, he began a nearly 20-year effort to develop and improve the nickeliron battery to power an electric car. In 1899, an electric car running on lead-acid batteries achieved a record speed of 65.79 mph (2). Gas-powered cars were in their infancy at the start of the 1900s and were outnumbered by electric cars.

That all changed in 1909 when Henry Ford rolled out the affordable mass-produced Model T, which took advantage of the abundance of a newly discovered fossil fuel called petrol (gasoline). The rapid-refueling capability of gasolinepowered vehicles, coupled with the advent of the electric starter, soon put electric vehicles out of favor. Batteries, ironically, powered the electric starter.

It wasn't until the oil crises of the 1970s and 1980s that the electric vehicle market experienced a resurgence, which was further boosted in the following decades by the worries of greenhouse gas emissions and peak oil.

Several types of electrified vehicles (EVs) have been commercialized: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles (BEVs).

HEVs typically have a 0.3- to 1-kWh battery that provides power assist and regenerative braking to the vehicle while relying on an internal combustion engine to provide the range. It does not need to be plugged in; instead, it is charged by a generator connected to the drive train.

PHEVs typically have a 3- to 16-kWh battery that provides an electric-only range of 10-40 miles (in a chargedepleting mode) before a gas engine engages to extend the range. The PHEV then enters a charge-sustaining mode and operates as an HEV, and the battery is later charged at the user's convenience.

The BEV is perhaps the simplest of vehicles in terms of components. It does not have an engine, but instead relies only on the battery for range and must be recharged when depleted. Range anxiety is the main concern about BEVs - a 30- to 60-kWh battery will take a BEV sedan 200 to 300 miles, depending on vehicle weight and climate. HEVs and PHEVs, on the other hand, do not induce range anxiety - they operate as fuel-efficient vehicles even if the battery is depleted.

HEVs have enjoyed the most consumer acceptance of all electrified vehicles. The most popular HEV, the Toyota Prius, was first released in Japan in 1997 and in the U.S. in 2000. Toyota has now sold over 5.3 million hybrids worldwide, with over 2 million of those sold in the U.S (3). While the majority of its hybrids are based on nickel metal hydride batteries, Toyota has been implementing lithium-ion batteries in their new plug-in version of the Prius (as well as the RAV4-EV and the European Prius+). Last year, Toyota announced plans to create a new lithium-ion battery production line with Panasonic that will have the capacity to make 200,000 batteries a year (4).

In a leap-frogging move. General Motors led an aggressive effort to develop the technologically advanced Chevy Volt (Figure 2). The first commercially available PHEV, the Volt is based on a 16.5-kWh lithium-ion battery manufactured by LG Chem that provides a 38-mile range under most driving conditions. The release of the Volt in December 2010 prompted Toyota to include a limited PHEV range for one of the Prius models starting in 2012, and set the bar high for the rest of the fuel-conscious auto industry. Over 46,000 Chevy Volts have been sold, with monthly sales this year averaging near 1,800 (5). Ford also released two PHEVs in 2012 - the Ford Fusion Energi and the Ford C-Max Energi - which have a 7.6-kWh lithium-ion battery for a 21-mile EV range.

BEVs currently on the market include the Ford Focus Electric, Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Tesla Model S (and Roadster), and Nissan LEAF. All of these BEVs have lithiumion batteries due to their high energy density. Nissan has sold over 33,000 LEAFs in the U.S. since its release in December 2010, with monthly sales averaging over 1,700 in 2013. The LEAF uses a 24-kWh lithium-ion battery to power an 80-kW motor for a nominal range of 75 miles.

The sportier Tesla Model S has reached production levels of 400 per week, with sales of more than 13,000 in the U.S. in 2013. The Model S, with a rated range of 300 miles, uses a 60-kWh battery based on the widely available lithium-ion 18650-format cells that were originally developed for portable applications (e.g.. laptop computers and power tools). U.S. sales of the Ford Focus Electric and the Mitsubishi i-MiEV have approached 1,900 and 600, respectively, since January 2012.

Sales of electrified vehicles are projected to increase worldwide over the coming decade, with BEV sales reaching one million by 2020 (Figure 3).

Battery cost is the major limitation of BEVs, and to a lesser extent PHEVs. Current lithium-ion batteries cost around $600/kWh. This price needs to be closer to $300/kWh before consumer acceptance of PHEVs and BEVs increases significantly.

Passenger cars are not the only vehicles being electrified. The U.S. Dept, of Energy (DOE) recently announced an electrification initiative through which it ordered 120 large plug-in hybrid work trucks powered by lithium-ion batteries.

Electric bikes (e-bikes) are also benefitting from the high energy density of lithium-ion batteries. As the price of lithium-ion batteries continues to fall, more e-bikes are being offered with lithium-ion batteries. Global sales of e-bikes are now nearly 30 million annually (mostly in China) and are expected to increase to 40 million by 2015 (6).

Earlier this year, Johnson Controls, the world's leading automotive battery manufacturer, announced that it will make the lithium-ion battery pack for Torqeedo's all electric, 80-hp Deep Blue boat (7).

Grid energy storage Large windmill farms are becoming a common sight in rural areas with dependable wind patterns. More wind (and solar) farms can be expected as the world incorporates renewable energy sources into the energy mix. One major drawback for wind and solar is their inherent intermittent power production. Utilities consider only 10% of the total installed capacity coming from most renewable energy sources as being readily available. This is commonly referred to as dispatchable capacity in the utility industry. Hence, up to 90% of solar and wind rated capacity must be backed up by other generating resources, such as natural gas, coal, nuclear, or energy storage.

Adding energy storage systems to the grid enhances its performance and reliability regardless of whether it receives any input from renewable energy sources. Grid energy storage falls into three general overlapping categories: * power quality systems, which inject short (less than one second) bursts of power into the grid for frequency regulation * bridging power/grid support systems, which inject power over several seconds to minutes during switching of energy sources and some load shifting * energy/power management systems, which provide hours of energy to allow load leveling (or load shifting, which is the transfer of lower-cost energy to higher-priced demand).

Typical energy sources that cover these grid applications are shown in Figure 4, which is a pseudo log-log plot of discharge time versus system power rating; a higher discharge time corresponds to more energy provided at a desired power level.

Lithium-ion batteries are suitable for high-power appli- cations in grid energy storage for frequency regulation, but due to their high cost they are not as widely used in load leveling/shifting applications. However, this is beginning to change. Earlier this year, EnerDel commissioned a 5-MW smart grid system for Portland General Electric (PGE) consisting of 1,440 lithium-ion battery modules that should be able to power 500 homes (8). A123 Systems (with partner AES Energy Storage) has installed over 100 MW in energy storage projects (9), including one on the island of Maui that can deliver 11 MW for short durations. A123 Systems recently installed a longer-duration system capable of supplying 1 MW of power for 1 h ( 1 MWh of energy) on the same island. That system, which fits in a 20-ft cargo container, is based on lithium-ion nanophosphate prismatic cell technology. For even more power, A123 Systems' single 53-ft Grid Battery System can supply 4 MW for one hour (10).

Southern California Edison (SCE) selected LG Chem to install a 32-MWh battery energy storage system (BESS) for the Tehachapi Wind Energy Storage Project (11). This will be the largest BESS in North America, residing in a 6,300-ft2 facility, and will have the energy equivalent of 2,000 Chevy Volt batteries. Saft offers the Intensium Max 20E lithium-ion BESS, which can store 1 MWh and discharge at a 500-kW rate and is housed in a standard 20-ft cargo container (12). Altaimano's Alti-Ess Advantage, a 2.0-MW system based on a nanostructured lithium-titanate (LTO) battery, is designed for fast-response applications that demand high power, such as grid stability, renewables integration, and frequency regulation (13).

Factors that impact Li-ion battery performance Temperature can have the biggest impact on lithium-ion battery performance (Figure 5). The typical operating temperature window for Li-ion technology is -20°C to 60°C for charging and -50°C to 60°C for discharging. Lithium-ion batteries experience significant power loss below 0°C, as evidenced by the lower operating voltage in Figure 5. Charging at a current rate that is too fast, especially at low temperature, may cause lithium dendrites to form on graphite anodes, since the graphite cannot accept the lithium ions fast enough. Lithium dendrites reduce the cycle life of the cell and may cause overheating, which causes deleterious side reactions within the cell that will also shorten the life and may create safety issues.

Properly designed cell/battery systems can usually provide over a thousand discharge cycles at 80% depth of discharge (DOD), while tens of thousands of cycles can easily be achieved with shallow discharges. Calendar life and cycle life are not the same thing: Calendar life is the expected total length of time that the battery is usable, similar to shelf life or storage life, whereas cycle life is the expected number of times a battery is charged and discharged. Both can be extended by limiting the amount of time that a cell is stored at top of charge, where the chemistry is most reactive.

Safety hurdles While the nonaqueous electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries have enabled the use of cell couples that operate across a 4.5-V potential window, most of these electrolytes contain a flammable organic carbonate solvent. Nonflammable electrolytes (including polymer-based electrolytes) are available, but they tend to suffer from a narrower potential window and/or lower ionic conductivity.

Under normal operating and storage conditions, a flammable electrolyte is not a safety hazard. Hazards exist when the battery is outside of its safe operating zone or if a defect in manufacturing becomes apparent sometime during its life.

Several features are incorporated into properly designed cells to ensure safety, such as circuit breakers or fuses, and rupture discs. In addition, a thermal-management system maintains the temperature of the cell/battery within an acceptable range. Thermal-management systems can be either active or passive, and use air or liquid as the heattransfer medium. AllCell Technologies has developed a passive thermal-management system based on phase-change materials to control the battery temperature.

Lithium-ion batteries can be especially hazardous if they are overcharged or overheated. Overcharging lithium-ion cells with graphitic anodes by even just a few hundredths of a volt can cause the formation of lithium metal dendrites, which then generate internal heat as the fresh high-surfacearea metallic lithium reacts with the electrolyte to form a passivation layer. A snowball effect may occur if the heat is not drawn away from the cell fast enough, because the increased temperature will cause additional side reactions to occur.

If the cell temperature reaches 70°C to 90°C, the cell may self-heat to the point of thermal runaway. Thermal runaway is the rapid release of a cell's stored energy, and is the biggest concern of battery developers. Thermal runaway is not limited to cells with graphite anodes; all cells can experience it under certain conditions. There is ample footage posted online of laptops and cell phones undergoing thermal runaway. These images are jarring and reinforce the need to design battery applications with caution.

Battery management systems (BMS) are typically deployed to monitor and improve Li-ion battery performance and ensure safe operating conditions. A basic BMS monitors the voltage and temperature of the battery. Morecomplex systems also monitor the voltage and temperature of each cell. Even-more-complex systems adjust the voltage of individual cells in series configurations (i.e., cell equalization) to prevent a cell from being incrementally overcharged with repeated cycling.

Quality control is extremely important in lithium-ion battery production, not just for performance and life, but also - especially - for safety. The negative and positive electrodes are usually separated by only 20 pm, and often this separator is a porous sheet of a polyolefin that melts at 110°C to I35°C. An internal short can develop if a small conductive particle lands on the separator during assembly. For this reason, many assembly rooms actively filter the air to remove particles larger than 5 pm. Internal shorts are troublesome because there is no reliable way to detect them once the battery is in the consumer's hands.

After a lithium-ion battery is sealed, it undergoes a formation/break-in process during which the cell is carefully charged and discharged to form a robust passivation layer referred to as a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer. After formation, the cell is monitored for several weeks in an effort to detect defective cells. Cells with hidden contamination particles that have high aspect ratios can pass this quality control step if they are oriented parallel to the electrode/separator interface, and they may never cause a concern if they remain in that orientation. However, electrodes expand and contract by small amounts during cycling. These movements may cause the particle to orient itself perpendicular to the electrodes and create an internal short. Any current-limitation device or internal fuse is useless once an internal short forms, because all of the cell's energy passes through the short. This creates a rapid temperature rise that may trigger a thermal runaway. If the cell is in a battery configuration, all of the battery's energy will pass through the short, too, if the battery design does not have proper fusing.

Beyond Li-ion While developers continue to make incremental improvements in the energy density, performance, and cost of lithium-ion batteries, the question being asked now is "what's next?" Electronic devices are demanding more energy with each new generation, as consumers expect more features. In addition, the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard of 54.5 mpg by 2025 will require increased electrification of the vehicle fleet. Growth in the deployment and use of renewable energy sources will require increases in large-scale energy storage for power grids. Cleary, a quantum leap in battery technology is necessary.

DOE has responded to this challenge by establishing an energy innovation hub that involves a consortium of academia, national laboratories, and industry. The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), headquartered at Argonne National Laboratory, brings together many of the world's leading battery researchers around the common objective of improving energy systems by overcoming fundamental challenges.

JCESR aims to go beyond today's best Li-ion systems to provide five times the energy storage at one-fifth the cost within five years. Meeting this ambitious goal will require the discovery of new energy storage chemistries through an atomic-level understanding of energy storage phenomena and the development of universal design rules for battery performance. JCESR will focus on three electricity storage concepts that are broader and more inclusive than the technologies now being pursued by the battery community. These concepts include: * Multivalent intercalation. This research focuses on ions such as magnesium, aluminum, and calcium, which carry two to three times the charge of lithium and have the potential to store two or three times as much energy.

* Chemical transformation. This work explores and exploits the chemical reaction of the working ion to store many times the energy of today's lithium-ion batteries, and will include the development of lithium metal and alloys that can be paired with oxygen or sulfur to create new storage technologies.

* Nonaqueous redox flow. This concept is based on reversibly changing the charge state of ions held in solution in large storage tanks; the very high capacity of this approach is well suited to the needs of grid energy storage systems. Some of the topics being explored in this field include: pumping slurries of electroactive solid materials as small particles; pumping solutions of dissolved organic species that are redox active; and/or combinations of these approaches with metallic anodes.

Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Vehicle Technologies Office of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy of the U.S. Dept, of Energy. See for more information on the many energy programs taking place within the DOE-EERE.

Additional Resources Battery Association of Japan, "Total Battery Production Statistics," (2013).

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), ?Total Cost of Ownership Model for Current Plug-in Electric Vehicles," 2013 Technical Report, Productld=0()0000003002001728 (June 10,2013).

Electricity Storage Association, "Introduction to Energy Storage," introduction_to_energy storage (2011 ).

The Fire Protection Research Foundation, "Lithium-Ion Batteries Hazard and Use Assessment," Final Report prepared by Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, category (D=2404<feitemfD=55415 (July 2011).

International Energy Agency (IEA), "Technology Roadmap: Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles," publications/freepublications/publication/EVPHEVbrochure. pdf (June 2011).

Navigant Research, "Electric Vehicle Market Forecasts," Executive Summary, uploads/2013/06/E VMF-13-Executive-Summary.pdf (2013).

Navigant Research, "Energy Storage on the Grid," Executive Summary, ESG-12-Executive-Summary.pdf (Published 4Q 2012).

Sandia National Laboratories, "DOE/EPR1 2013 Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA," Sandia Report: SAND2013-5131, (2013).

Sony Corp., "Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries - Technical Handbook,"

Literature Cited 1. Oteiza, F., "Lithium, Batteries and Vehicles/Perspectives and Trends," Analysis Report by Signum BOX, Issue 06 (July 2012).

2. Electric Vehicle News, "Electric Vehicles History Part III," www. (Sept. 15,2013).

3. Toyota USA, "Toyota Leads the Charge in Hybrid Technology with Steady Popularity in California," releases/toyota+hybrid+technology+popularity+califomia.htm (July 29,2013).

4. ?Toyota Plans Big Hike in Lithium-ion Battery Output," Automotive News, toyota-plans-big-hike-in-lithium-ion-battery-output#ixzz2fOLnUje4 (May 19,2013).

5. King, D., "July 2013: Good Times with Green-Car Sales Edition," Autoblog Green, By the Numbers, http://green.autoblog. com/2013/08/02/july-2013-green-car-sales-edition/ (Aug. 2,2013).

6. Jamerson, F. E., et aL, "Light Electric Vehicles/EV Technology," 11th ed., Electric Bikes Worldwide Reports, EBWR13 Highlights, (2013).

7. Johnson Controls, "Johnson Controls' Li-ion Batteries to Power Award-Winning Electric Boat Motor," content/us/en/products/power_solutions/power_solutions_presskit/ feature-stories/johnson-conttols-li-ion-batteries-to-power-awardwinning-electri.

html (Feb. 28,2013).

8. Williams, R., "Oregon Smart Grid Powers 500 Homes with Batteries," Energy Storage Publishing, news/062013-524/#.UjZIsC0o6M8 (June 3, 2013).

9. John, J. S., "A 123 's Grid-Scale Storage Business Lives On," GreenTech Grid,íd-scale-storage-busíness-líves-on (May 6, 2013).

10. AI23 Energy Solutions, "A 123 Energy Solutions Expands Global Grid Energy Storage Installations," home/20130603005919/en/A 123-Energy-Solutions-ExpandsGlobal-Grid-Energy (June 3,2013).

11. LG Chem, Ltd., "LG Chem to Power North America's Largest Battery Energy Storage System,"' LTD-6494928/news/LG-Chem-Ltd-LG-Chem-to-Power-NorthAmericas-Largest-Battery-Energy-Storage-System-17000324 (June 4, 2013).

12. Saft, "Safi's Extended Range of Intensium Max Containerised Energy Storage Systems Now Includes 1 MWh Capability," www. (May 22,2013).

13. Altairnano, "Introducing the Power-Intensive Alti-ESS Suite," Brochure_IO.pdf (Mar. 7, 2012).

Andrew N. Jansen Argonne National Laboratory ANDREW N. JANSEN, PhD, is a principal chemical engineer in the Chemical Sciences and Engineering Div. of Argonne National Laboratory (9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439; Phone: (630) 252-4956; Email: with more than 20 years of experience in research and development of advanced battery systems. Much of his research has centered on the use of lithium-based batteries, such as lithium-alloy/iron disulfide, lithium polymer, and lithiumion batteries for transportation applications. He has recently expanded his interests to include grid energy storage. He is the team leader of the Cell Analysis, Modeling, and Prototyping (CAMP) Facility at Argonne, which is focused on the advancement of novel high-energy cell systems. He holds three chemical engineering degrees: a PhD from the Univ. of Florida, an MS from the Univ. of Virginia, and a BS from the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison.

(c) 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

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